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¿Funciona La Interdependencia?

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Enviado por:  ilpgc  26 diciembre 2012
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THEORY AND REALITY, 1919-89

International institutions only begun to command substantial international

attention following the establishment of the United Nations in 1945.

After 1945, even the most powerful states came to rely increasingly on

international institutions.

The number of inter-governmental organisations increased dramatically, from

about 30 in 1910 to 70 in 1940 to more than 1,000 by 1981.

Following the exchange rate and oil crises of the early 1970s, policymakers

realised that global issues required systematic policy coordination and that such

coordination required institutions.

Scientists began to redefine the study of international institutions, broadening it to

include what that they called international regimes.

In the 1980s, research focused on the conditions under which countries cooperate.

Scholars adopted realism, and accepted that state power and competing interests

were key factors in world politics, but at the same time drawing new conclusions

about the influence of institutions.

Institutions allow states to cooperate in mutually beneficial ways be reducing the

costs of making and enforcing agreements. Powerful states also have an interest in

following the rules of well-established institutions, since conformity to rules

makes the behaviour of other states more predictable.

By reducing uncertainty and the costs of making and enforcing agreements,

international institutions help states achieve collective gains.

YESTERDAY’S CONTROVERSIES: 1989-95

Institutionalism was not without its critics, who focused their attacks on three

perceived shortcomings.

Firstly, they claimed international institutions are fundamentally insignificant

since states wield the only real power in world politics. Keohane believes this

argument was overstated, he says whilst great powers exercise enormous

influence, the policies that emerge from these institutions are different from what

would have bee

n adopted unilaterally.

The second counterargument focused on anarchy and the absence of a world

government or effective international legal system to which victims of injustice

can appeal. As a result, states prefer relative gains to absolute gains. Keohane

believes states can be expected to enhance their own welfare without being

worried that others will also make advances. So the relative gains question merely

highlights the difficulties of cooperation where there is tough bilateral

competition, it does not by any means undermine prospects for cooperation in

general.

The third objection was that cooperation is not harmonious; it emerges out of

discord and takes place through tough bargaining. Keohane believes institutions

may help provide focal points, on which competing actors may agree, but new

issues often lack such institutions. In this case, both the pace and extent of

cooperation become more problematic.

TODAY’S DEBATES

The general problem is bargain ...



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