Temas Variados / ¿Que Es La Linguistica?

¿Que Es La Linguistica?

Documentos de Investigación: ¿Que Es La Linguistica?
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Enviado por:  andreasoleortiz  11 abril 2013
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Things to remember

Linguistics is the scientific study of language-what we know when we know a language.

Main areas: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics.

Other areas: sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, historical linguistics, language acquisition, psycholinguistics, computational linguistics.

Important questions

Is it possible that a creature may learn to communicate with humans using language?

Does human language have special propertiesthat make it unique and different than any other communication systems found in nature?

Communicative & informative signals

Signals

Informative Signals

(sending signals unintentionally )

Communicative Signals

(intentionally communicating sth)

Informative signals

a cold = sneezed

not at ease = shifting around

disorganized = non-matching socks

stranger = strange accent

communicative signals

Humans

e.g.

We have a quiz next week

I’m sorry,I don’t think I can make

it to the meeting

Animals

e.g.

A blackbird producing a loud squawk

when a cat appears in the scene

Properties of human language1. Displacement

•Animal communication is designed for the immediate place and time (here and now)

•Humans can use language to refer to the past, present and future

e.g.last night, now, next week

•We can even talk about things and places whose existence we cannot be sure of.

e.g. angels, fairies, Superman, Santa Claus, heaven, hell

Properties of human language

Displacements:

Displacement is the property of human language that allows language users to talk about things and events not present in the immediate moment.

* Animal communication is generally considered to lackthis property

Properties of human language

2. Arbitrariness (in human language)Generally, there is no ‘natural’ connection between a linguistic form and its meaning. The relation between linguistic forms and the objects they refer to is arbitraryDog in English and كلب in Arabic.There ar

e some words (onomatopoeic) in language with sounds that seems to ‘echo’ the sounds of objects or actions (less arbitrary)Onomatopoeia:the use of words that sound like the thing they are describing, (e.g. 'hiss' or 'boom’)Onomatopoeic words are relatively rare in human language.

Properties of human language

3.Productivity

Productivity(creativity/ open-endlessness):

The capability of humans to continually create new expressions

and utterances to describe new objects and situations

oThe number of utterance in any human language is infinite.

Animals:

ohave limited set of signals to choose from (fixed reference)

ocannot produce any new signals to describe novel experiences.

Properties of human language

4. Cultural transmission (in humans)

oHumans inherit physical features from their parents but not language.

oWe acquire a language in a culture with other speakers (not from parental genes)

Cultural transmission

The process whereby a language is passed on from one generation t ...



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