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Enviado por:  mariegothic  12 febrero 2012
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Betty Neuman's System Model

This page was last updated on January 28, 2012


• Theorist - Betty Neuman - born in 1924, in Lowel, Ohio.

• BS in nursing in 1957; MS in Mental Health Public health consultation, from UCLA in 1966; Ph.D. in clinical psychology

• Theory was publlished in:

o “A Model for Teaching Total Person Approach to Patient Problems” in Nursing Research - 1972.

o "Conceptual Models for Nursing Practice", first edition in 1974, and second edition in 1980.

• Betty Neuman’s system model provides a comprehensive flexible holistic and system based perspective for nursing.


Neuman’s model was influenced by:

• The philosophy writers deChardin and Cornu (on wholeness in system).

• Von Bertalanfy, and Lazlo on general system theory.

• Selye on stress theory.

• Lararus on stress and coping.


• Each client system is unique, a composite of factors and characteristics within a given range of responses contained within a basic structure.

• Many known, unknown, and universal stressors exist. Each differ in it’s potential for disturbing a client’s usual stability level or normal LOD (Line of Defence).

• The particular inter-relationships of client variables at any point in time can affect the degree to which a client is protected by the flexible LOD against possible reaction to stressors.

• Each client/ client system has evolved a normal range of responses to the environment that is referred to as a normal LOD. The normal LOD can be used as a standard from which to measure health deviation.

• When the flexible LOD is no longer capable of protecting the client/ client system against an environmental stressor, the stressor breaks through the normal LOD

• The client whether in a state of wellness or illness, is a dynamic composite of the inter-relationships of the variables. Wellness is on a continuum of available energy to support the system in an optimal state of system stability.

Implicit within each client system are internal resistance factors known as LOR, which function to stabilize and realign the client to the usual wellness state.

• Primary prevention relates to G.K. that is applied in client assessment and intervention, in identification and reduction of possible or actual risk factors.

• Secondary prevention relates to symptomatology following a reaction to stressor, appropriate ranking of intervention priorities and treatment to reduce their noxious effects.

• Tertiary prevention relates to adjustive processes taking place as reconstitution begins and maintenance factors move the back in circular manner toward primary prevention.

• The client as a system is in dynamic, constant energy exchange with the environment.

MAJOR CONCEPTS (Neuman, 2002)


• the variables of the person in interaction with the internal and external environment comprise the whole client system

Basic structure/Central core

• The common client survival factors in ...

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